KM in Reality: Tools & Techniques #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description:  KM in Reality: Tools & Techniques

Our speakers look at using KM fundamentals, concepts, leadership, and processes to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of planning, problem- solving, decision making, collaboration, continuity, knowledge capture and sharing, innovation, and learning. From using knowledge repositories/ forums on SharePoint to maximize learning to the use of chat, online meetings, OneNote, etc., to enhance knowledge sharing, and after action reviews, they illustrate how to transform knowledge-intensive activities into knowledge processes with related goals and objectives supporting the organization’s mission and vision.

Speakers:

Shellie Glass, Chief Knowledge Officer, United States Southern Command
Peter Barcelo Jr., Knowledge Management Officer, United States Southern Command

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • The United States Southern Command (“SC”)
    • Website: http://www.southcom.mil/Pages/Default.aspx
    • Area of Responsibility:
      • Central (excluding Mexico) and South America, as well as the Caribbean.
      • They protect the southern approaches to the United State
      • They carry out humanitarian missions in their area of responsibility
      • They manage Guantanamo
      • Their commander’s mantra: “Fast, Flat and Agile.”
  • SC Knowledge Management Structure.
    • The KM Office reports to the SC Chief of Staff (a two-star Air Force general)
    • They have a KM Working Group — it involves each of the functional groups within SC.
  • KM Principles.
    • They use the 12 Army Knowledge Mangement Principles
      • built on a foundation of People and Culture
      • Then a layer of process
      • Then a layer of technology
      • Then multiple columns (like the Parthenon) — see first slide
      • All under the “roof” of a Culture of Collaboration
  • KM Hands-On Tools & Techniques.
    • Emphasized use of:
      • Chat — this proved to be very fast and effective during their Hurricane Matthew response. They used WhatsApp to good effect — it allowed them to connect with other government departments and NGOs working in Haiti.
      • SharePointCollaboration Site — SharePoint is the authorized vehicle for the DoD. It was the “landing area” for posting, finding, searching.
      • All partner access network (APAN) — see Hurricane Matthew Response site
      • Video teleconference (VTC)
      • Sharing, collaborating, transparency
      • continuous battle-rhythm
      • Senior Leader Engagement
    • Deemphasized (whenever possible) EMAIL = a single point of failure
      • they found that email traffic decreased significantly during the operation
  • Knowledge Processes.
    • Knowledge Management Institute Model
      • Acquire information/knowledge
      • Produce knowledge — collaborate, refine, create
      • Integrate knowledge — publishing, structuring, instructing, presenting
    • SECI Model
      • by Nonaka & Takeuchi
      • Socialization — collaboration / share knowledge
      • Eternalization — capture knowledge / write reports
      • Combination — build knowledge / transfer best practices
      • Internationalization — learning by doing
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Using Lenses to Right Fit Social & Collaboration #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description: Using Lenses to Right Fit Social & Collaboration

Organizations have been deploying new digital work platforms and services the past few years. Quite often we hear that the tools don’t matter that much, just get one and use it. Adding a community manager and digital transformation specialists helps, but the tools don’t seem to do what is needed. The question is constantly, “Do the tools fit our needs?” and also “We see value but it seems like it isn’t quite right.” Well, not only is getting the right help important, it is important to right fit the tools to the needs and uses. The uses and needs can be complex and diverse. This session helps break down the diversity, enabling the dimensions and their elements to be viewed properly so what is relevant for your organization can be seen through the use of social lenses. Using the lenses as a diagnostic tool to understand what works and fits and where there are gaps and needs helps bring clarity. But, greater clarity is provided when pairing the lenses to view different perspectives clearly.

This is particularly helpful for improving use and knowledge flows through the organization’s understanding of the right fit of tool(s) and services. Using the lenses to see the relevant dimensions and how they intersect not only helps organizations understand the needs for today, but works as a valuable method for framing an adaptive road map for the coming years. Having clarity to see the smaller actual pieces enables sensing their changes in order to adjust and adapt with more clarity of understanding.

Speaker: Thomas Vander Wal, Sr. Consultant, Adjuvi, LLC

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • Don’t Start with a Tool or Service First.  Most organizations end up with an enterprise-wide platform because it was bundled “free” with another tool. Often, the free tools and services do not quite fit the need. 
  • Start by Understanding Your Needs First.
    • Common, shared working spaces
    • Increasing knowledge sharing
  • Don’t Default to Closed Node System.
    • Top down
    • Approval-centric
    • Slow to spread
    • Slow to change
    • Knowledge is buried — it is hard to search, it is hard to find knowledge. Therefore, the focus is on training to help spread the knowledge
    • Email is the “poster child” of the closed node network
  • Open-Node Systems.
    • Emergent
    • Sharing-centric
    • Nimble and adaptive
    • Understand that things are constantly changing — this is both accepted and accommodated by the way we work
    • Knowledge is searchable and linked — even among disparate services or repositories. By having things in an open-node environment, the links among knowledge “light up the dark web inside your organization.”
    • Focus on helping rather than on training
    • Open digital conversation
    • Supports collaborative and collective living documents — they change to reflect current realities
    • All history and transitions are viewable and available
    • Conversations around objects occur with those objects in clear sight –e.g.,  connecting comments to the object that is being discussed
  • What’s the most valuable? While the final decision is good to know, it can be even more helpful to have access to the thinking that led to the decision. This allows a later pivot, without having to redo the entire decisionmaking process.
  • Social Progressions. This is how to develop and scale new ideas
    • Sparks — individual ideas that arise in disparate places and seem to be pointing to a useful pattern or direction.
    • Campfire — bring together the various disconnected items into a central place where a a group can discuss it “around the campfire”
    • Bonfire — add more fuel, bring in more people, widen the discussion in an open environment
    • Torch — safe, reliable, repeatable in different environments. This is what you have to create in order to share the ideas that emerged from the sparks to campfire to bonfire process.
    • Organizations with 1 social platform have a high probability of having two or more platforms.
  • Differing Perspectives.
    • Personal — in a social environment, people need to know what they are working on, information regarding who and what they need to know to get my job done are within easy reach.
    • Collective — getting into the open the information from individual understanding that now needs to be made available to others.
    • Cooperative — once the information is the open, allowing people to draw connections between those materials and themselves. (Example: seeing that someone else has an understanding of an issue that is similar to mine. We have a connection that might be worth exploring.) This operates at several scales:
      • Individual
      • Team
      • Group
      • Community
      • Network
    • Collaborative — this involves moving a disparate group of individuals into a single whole.
    • Social Working Array — you need to be able to see all of these perspectives as they occur across the platform and across the organization: Collective, Cooperative, Collaborative
  • Social Scaling.
    • Humans are mostly social by nature but often are not social at scale.  (See Reed’s Law.) People move up and down the scale. This needs to be accommodated by social platforms.
    • Most people are most comfortable interacting with a small group of others they know; their comfort decreases as group size grows.
    • Humans naturally build groups and clusters to ease interacting with large groups
  • Team Needs. The most frequently occuring group is the Team. They interact at the 70% level. (By contrast, Communities online tend to interact at the 30% level.) You need to understand the needs of a team as it operates:
    • tasks
    • status
    • process
    • progress
    • calendars
    • decisionmaking
  • Social Groups and Walled Gardens.
    • Closed groups (closed node) tend to have high adoption and activity rates as compared to open groups. This relates to a lack of comfort with sharing in a more open environment.
    • We need to create comfortable spaces with permeable walls. See Donald Appleyard’s “Livable Streets” for a similar approach in a physical (rather than digital) environment. Having front porches helped people in their houses feel more comfortable coming outside and hanging out on the street. Having front windows helped people on the street understand the people in the houses better.
  • How to Improve your online groups? Have a team that includes the following:
    • Community manager
    • Social interaction designer
    • Social scientists — they see strengths and gaps in the social interactions within the group
    • Knowledge manager
    • UX/User Research
    • Change Manager
    • IT Dev/ Integrator
  • Typical Problems.
    • Services go away — so plan redundancy/failovers
    • Change is constant — so plan to be nimble
    • Plan for continued security, privacy/permissions and changes in scaling as they occur
    • Plan for the many pieces that exist in your system — you need integration/interoperation, umbrella services, community managers/navigation

    • Selection & review — have a six-month tool review, understand the balance between change and stability and long-term assessments; keep your vendor assessments fresh
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Digital Workspace Predictions #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description: Digital Workspace Predictions

2016 is a tipping point around mobile and cloud-based workplace technology. Our analyst shares twelve predictions including wearables gain traction, mobile-first finally arrives, content management is standard, a ‘chief digital workplace officer, SharePoint, and more.

Speaker: Jarrod Gingras, Senior Analyst and Managing Director, Real Story Group

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • A True Employee-Centric Digital Workplace is about to be a priority for most enterprises.  A TRUE digital workplace means more than just an intranet and a few add-ons.  Currently, only 12% of enterprises have a TRUE digital workplace that is truly employee-centric.
  • User-Centered Design Makes its Way into the Enterprise. Move beyond the technology stack; start with what the employees actually need and want.  Currently, most enterprises start by acquiring promising technology and
  • New Roles on the Digital Workplace team. You will now need new roles such as designer or UX designer on your team.
  • Enterprises will Continue to Struggle to See Beyond Features. Most enterprises start with a list of features (e.g., a blogging tool, a coauthoring tool, etc.). The better approach is to identify first what you are trying to achieve. Then look for the right tool that helps you achieve your intended outcome. Typical work goals:
    • knowledge management
    • external collaboration
    • internal collaboration
    • case management
    • communities
    • innovation support
    • social Q&A
    • expertise location
  • Enterprises will Continue to Struggle with the Gap Between Executive and Staff Desires.
  • Smart Enterprises will Start Managing Applications as Products. More enterprises will bring an application manager onboard to supervise the care and feeding of an application as if it were a product;
  • Emergence of Chief Digital Workplace Officer Role. More enterprises will be hiring into this position — sometimes called the Chief Employee Experience Officer. This person is responsible for the employee experience within the enterprise
  • Continued Product/Platform Divide.
    • Platforms: IBM, Microsoft SharePoint, Oracle
    • Major Suites: Drupal, Google, Jive, SAP Jam, Verint
    • Smaller Suites (Intranet in a box): Atlassian, Atos, Igloo, Interact, Thoughtfarmer, Traction Software
    • Social Enterprise Layers & SharePoint Supplements (services that bring the ability to collaborate to the place where you are working): Microsoft Yammer, neudesic, Salesforce Chatter, Sitrion, TIBC, vmware
  • Mobile Capability Becomes Critical. This is no longer an option; we have no choice. But there is a big deficit. Currently, these are the levels of mobile access:
    • 100% email
    • everything else is MUCH less available and effective on a mobile device
  • Major Shift to the Cloud. Increasingly, organizations are moving their social collaboration technology into the cloud. Currently, 45% are primarily on premises, only 27% are primarily Saas / Cloud-based
  • Slack will not Kill Email. Currently, Slack barely makes a dent in email. Its impact is much smaller than Yammer, Chatter, Jive
  • Facebook Repeats Google’s Mistakes. Facebook at work will not work for the enterprise — their technology fundamentally not built for the enterprise. Therefore, enterprise IT directors will lots of unpleasant surprises when they discover that the functionality they need is not there — especially permissioning.
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Design Thinking for the Digital Workplace #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description: Design Thinking for the Digital Workplace

“Design” is a powerful word in modern business and a key element of a successful digital workplace (intranet). Design ensures that the right solutions are delivered and that they work in a simple and delightful way. “Design thinking” provides a toolbox of techniques for understanding needs, designing systems, and prototyping. This session explores these techniques and shows how they can be applied to the future of work.

Speaker: Rebecca Rodgers, Principal Consultant, Step Two

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • Four streams of the digital workplace.  
    • Technology
    • Business
    • Design
    • People
  • Start with a deep understanding of the people you are serving. You can’t deliver effective solutions to people you haven’t actually met. You need to understand what they need, not just what they want.
  • How to research the people you are serving.
    • “retro” research methods don’t work
      • surveys
      • focus groups
    • modern field research does work:
      • one-on-one interviews: talking to them (at length)
        • ask them to tell you their stories – what is hard, what is easy, etc.
      • workplace observation: spending time with them as they work
      • co-designing with them
  • Emotions are critical. Explore the emotions that are behind the behaviors and actions of the people you seek to serve.
  • Be open. Channel your inner four-year-old — don’t start with judgment, start with inquiry.  Ask why, then ask why (many times) again.
  • Look for patterns. Expand your inquiry, look for confirming and conflicting data points from similarly situated people.
  • Capture what you learn. Document what they say, do, think and feel.
    • use quotations
    • use photographs
    • document their stories
  • Address the Fundamentals of Good User Experience.
    • Empathize — Start with needs
    • Define the problem
    • Card sorting — to understand how users group and label information
    • Create architecture using that card sorting, then test that architecture with more users. Can they navigate easily?
    • Ideate using all the rich research you have done — preferably put the results of that research on your walls — surround yourself with inspiration from your research.
    • Prototype – this is a manual process so get out from behind your computer, use your hands, use physical objects.
      • prototype with the user in mind
      • each prototype should answer a specific question
    • Test — repeatedly
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KM Opps, Realities & Challenges #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description: KM Opps, Realities & Challenges

New opportunities, new realities, and some old challenges.

Forces transforming “knowledge” and “knowledge sharing” include globalization, the information tsunami, on-demand expectations, flexible talent models, and cognitive technologies. This is the new reality of business and the enterprise, but the strategic choices we make to deliver knowledge at the point of need are not so different and represent new opportunities to familiar challenges.  Jooste discusses cognitive  technology, how millennials are remaking organizations and may be KM’s best new hope, “reinventing failure,” stopping knowledge from walking out the door, brain science and future scenarios for KM – disruption, design thinking, indifference or

Forces transforming “knowledge” and “knowledge sharing” include globalization, the information tsunami, on-demand expectations, flexible talent models, and cognitive technologies. This is the new reality of business and the enterprise, but the strategic choices we make to deliver knowledge at the point of need are not so different and represent new opportunities to familiar challenges.  Jooste discusses cognitive  technology, how millennials are remaking organizations and may be KM’s best new hope, “reinventing failure,” stopping knowledge from walking out the door, brain science and future scenarios for KM – disruption, design thinking, indifference or appification?

Speakers: Adriaan Jooste, CKO, Deloitte Advisory

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • Experience.  “Experience is what you get when you don’t get what you want.”
  • Knowledge Management Waves and Tsunamis. KM has gone through waves — moving through one industry to another. However, now we face a tsunami in the workplace:
    • The sheer amount of information leads to cognitive overload. Cognitive overload leads us to narrowed focus, which hampers creativity.
    • Rob Cross reports that for the average worker, requests to collaborate have gone up by 80%. (This is taken from a recent Rob Cross podcast.)
    • Email is growing worse; it is not going away
    • We suffer from inefficient processes.
  • KM Disruption. How have we handled disruption? How are we handling current and potential disruptive forces?
    • moving from storytelling to books
    • moving from books to computers
    • moving from computers to websites
    • incorporating AI
    • distributing content managers around the world
    • sharing knowledge globally across international organizations
    • search — no one in the room believes that their enterprise search is within 30% as good as Google
    • mobile and tablets — only a handful of people in the room believe that their organizations have good mobile apps
    • analytics and Big Data —  no one in the room has incorporated analytics or big data in their KM efforts
    • blockchain — one or two attendees in the room are investigating this but no one in the room is using blockchain for KM.
    • flexible talent models — working with colleagues who are not always employees
    • virtual reality or augmented reality — why can’t your KM system be like Pokemon Go?
    • cognitive computing
  • Most promising Cognitive Technologies. Deloitte is working on several innovative programs using the new technologies listed below. In fact, Deloitte has won awards for using these innovative tools in one of the most conservative aspects of their business: audit. For more information on this, see the Deloitte MOOC on cognitive technologies.
    • Natural language processing
    • Computer vision
    • Machine Learning
    • Text Mining
    • Robotics
    • Speech Recognition
    • Sensing and Shaping
  • The impact of Cognitive Computing on KM. Cognitive computing will disrupt business and we will see its impact on knowledge management. Don’t be misled into believing that this is an “edge” technology. It is here and it is being used to powerful effect by market leaders.
  • Globalization. Deloitte’s clients want access to standardized services globally but they still value local creativity and responsiveness to their local context.
  • Millennials are our best hope for KM.
    • Their natural bent is toward sharing
    • They want work-life balance
    • They tend not to stay in one place long. So Deloitte focuses increases speed to competency. And then, when they move on, Deloitte has a program that treats them as “colleagues for life.”
      • Deloitte has built “Deloitte University” to train their employees — particularly their millennials.
    • They like rewards and recognition — they particularly want recognition for work well done.
    • They care about doing well by doing good.
    • They like having the latest technology.
  • KM Success depends on Behavior Change. KM has many of the same characteristics as lifestyle choices (e.g., exercising, sleeping, eating properly, etc.). You need to make the change, and hten make a commitment to sustain that change and to work continually on improving your outcomes. Success requires information, support, and feedback. Therefore, use what we know about brain science to improve the rate of behavior change.  For example, if you receive positive feedback when someone uses content you have contributed, then your brain gets a little opioid hit. This encourages you to contribute more.
  • KM and Innovation. KM should support innovation. But it isn’t just about enabling innovation more, it is really about increasing the rate of adoption of innovation.
  • KM Lessons learned at Deloitte.
    • Governance is fundamental to good KM.
    • Your KM program must be tailored to your organization’s context.
    • Invest in a formal knowledge management approach
    • Continually make the business case — daily
    • KM is an evolutionary process
    • Point solutions are a double-edged sword
    • Technology is not a panacea for KM ills
  • Moving your organization from a negative to a positive view of KM.
    • KM is “the thing that must not be named.” — if you have any KM, it is hidden within a quality or other program (e.g., six sigma, project management, etc.)
    • Active resistance — These people do not think KM is useful. These active resisters can be extremely effective missionaries once they are won over. So focus on them. And, in the process, you will learn the most and sharpen your game.
    • Passive resistance
    • Indifference
    • Benevolent neglect
    • Active support
    • Essential to organizational success and survival — this the optimum
  • Optimistic Future of KM.
    • no email
    • no website — just use apps
    • designing thinking builds knowledge into every step of every process your people do
  • The Three Pilot Rule
    • do one easy pilot so you have a quick win
    • do a tough pilot so you learn
    • do a pilot that will make senior leadership pay attention and then sign the checks you need
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Search Outside the Box #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description: Thinking and Searching Out of the Box

Our industry helps people retrieve information by searching, browsing, and visualizing the data stored within their content management systems. This endeavor is inherently introspective in so far as it focuses on the close analysis of an enterprise’s internal content. This talk is an exercise in thinking outside of that box. Clarke explores ways in which an enterprise’s internal content can be mined for information, even when the answers don’t always exist within the data we are querying. He discusses the use of natural language processing and semantic query expansion techniques, demonstrating the power of ontologies and machine reasoning to interrogate internal content in new and powerful ways.

Speakers:

Dave Clarke, CEO, Synaptica
Maish Nichani, Co-founder, Ola Search

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • What is the “Box”?  The box is your content collection.
  • What’s the difference between search inside and outside the “Box”? The speakers assert that you can do better job searching your internal content if you first map your content to external content.  For example, if you type in a general query or a minimalist query, the search engine needs to understand the concepts implicit in the query. If the search engine does not have the required information, the search engine will (at best) return a rather general response that may not contain the desired results. By contrast, if you map externally after the search, you can see how a similar search is handled externally. That exercise will help enrich the query, thereby giving the search engine more useful information to work with.
  • Do not think small about Search. Search is not just about locating specific content. It is also (and increasingly) about finding answers to specific questions. Google is learning that users increasingly want answers to questions (e.g., how to treat the common cold) rather than particular documents or videos.
  • Start by mapping. When you map internal content to the external content, this helps you understand better what is inside your content collection. It finds and validates information that is not already in your content collection, but that can be used to enrich both the initial user search and the results the search engine brings back.
  • How does this fit with your taxonomy?  Taxonomy and search belong together. Make sure your search engine does not ignore the taxonomy that you have built so carefully. Equally, sometimes your taxonomy does not encompass everything you need for an efficient search. So searching “outside the box” can help enrich the taxonomy and search.
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How to Innovate #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Title and Description: Hacking KM or How to Innovate!

Speakers: Jeffrey Phillips, VP & Lead Consultant, OVO Innovation Co-Author, OutManeuver: OutThink, Don’t OutSpend

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2016 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • Maneuver.  
    • We need to learn how to compete by increasing agility and responsiveness.
    • Business tends toward standardization and efficiency. This makes it possible for an organization to “do a slow grind” but does not allow an organization to pivot quickly or course correct.
    • The secret to success is to outmaneuver your competition rather than trying to compete with them head on.
  • Ways to Attack your competitor.
    • Preemption
    • Dislocation
    • Disruption
  • How to compete. Find the weaknesses in your competitor’s business and then compete there.
    • What are the vulnerabilities in your competitor’s strategy?
      • is your competitor locked into a particular way of working? For example, AirBnB needs a supply of privately owned bedrooms. Can you make it difficult for them to operate that way? Can you operate that way, but better.
    • Are there tangible business requirements you can compete against?
      • Does your competitor need specific laws and regulations? Is your competitor violating specific laws and regulations? Can you hold them accountable for this? (This is a tactic some cities (and hotels) are using against AirBnB.
    • Are there intangible business requirements?
      • can I beat you by creating a better culture, hiring better talent, etc.
    • Can you compete strictly on product? This is the most common arena for competing.
  • Maneuver Tools.
    • Temporal competition. If your competitor brings our new product on a fixed schedule, can you come to market on a different schedule, at a different time? Can you compete on speed?
    • Psychological competition. Can you use psy
    • Positional competition. Does your competitor have a position (or market share) I need to take or can I make that position/market share irrelevant? Amazon and Netflix made the prime real estate location of Barnes & Noble and Blockbuster irrelevant.
    • Informational competition. How do I use information more effectively than my competitors? Can I use information to beat my competitors? We need insight = see opportunities before they emerge
  • Maneuver Strategy Relies on Speed, Agility, Insight and Innovation.
    • Speed. Can I act before my competitors do? This is pure speed. (Most companies are set up for the slow-grind, not the fast sprint.)
    • Agility. Can I course correct at speed? This agility.
    • Insight. Insight is the ability to see opportunities before they emerge, before they are obvious to your competitors.
    • Innovation. Can I bring to the market something new that has commercial value?
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The Knowledge Supply Chain #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Description: The business value of knowledge is to enable the knowledge worker, and support them in making the most effective and efficient decisions. Knowledge is as much a raw material for the knowledge worker as parts and tools are for the manual worker. We can therefore think of KM as being the supply chain for knowledge, providing just-in-time knowledge to support  the front-line knowledge worker. This allows us to take models and insights from other supply chains in order to improve how KM works, including the “elimination of 7 wastes” from Lean Supply Chain theory, and the clear focus on the knowledge user.  Hear about the supply-chain view of KM, its implications, and ways to develop and/or improve a KM Framework.

Speaker: Nick Milton, Director & Founder, Knoco Ltd

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2015 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • Slide Deck
  • Peter Drucker.  The biggest management challenge of the 20th century was to increase by fifty times the productivity of manual workers in manufacturing. The biggest management challenge for the 21st century is to increase by fifty times the productivity of knowledge work and knowledge workers.
  • Manual Work Productivity.
    • The manual worker. Nick’s grandfather was a blacksmith, a manual worker, a craftsman.  When he made something, he made every part of it. His workmanship was superb.
    • The manufacturing worker. Management achieved a productivity increase in manual work by moving from the solitary manual worker to the manufacturing worker who made only one part of a finished product. By dividing labor, factories could make products significantly faster.
    • Other causes of increased productivity in manual work:
      • mechanization
      • a ready and available supply of the materials needed to create the product
  • Knowledge Work Productivity.
    • The knowledge craftsman is the expert who knows it all
    • The knowledge worker.  Today, however, the knowledge worker no longer needs to know it all. Knowledge is held collectively by the community and the network. In fact, an expert is almost always outperformed by a network. This is the knowledge work equivalent of improved productivity through the division of labor. However, in this case, it is a division of knowledge.
      • this requires a cultural shift = a fundamental change from knowledge as personal property to knowledge as collective property
        • this is challenging to some people because they believe that knowledge gives them worth and security
    • Automation: The knowledge equivalent of mechanization is automation.
    • Knowledge supply change — if you no longer own/have all the knowledge you need, then you need a reliable supply chain that gives you the knowledge you need when you need it.
  • Lord Browne of Madingly
    • Lord Browne was a former CEO of British Petroleum.
    • In Unleashing the Power of Learning (an interview published in the Harvard Business Review), he stated that if a company wants to gain and keep a competitive edge it must learn better than its competitors and then must apply that knowledge faster and more widely than its competitors do.
    • In the same interview he also stated that anyone who is not directly involved in profit-making activities should be fully occupied in creating and sharing knowledge that the company can use to make a profit.

Knowledge Supply Chain.

A supply chain is “a sequence of processes involved in the production and distribution of a commodity.” A knowledge supply chain is a sequence of processes involved in the production and distribution of knowledge. In other words, a knowledge supply chain provides “the right knowledge at the right time to the right people, so they can make the right decisions.”

To have an effective knowledge supply chain, we need the following:

  • We need a set of knowledge processes:
    • Knowledge creation
    • Knowledge capture
    • Knowledge synthesis
    • Knowledge seeking
    • Knowledge application
  • We need the related knowledge roles.
    • Knowledge managers
    • Knowledge engineers
    • Practice owners
    • Knowledge workers
  • We need the supporting technology .
    • Lessons learned management systems
    • Community portals
    • Discussion
    • Knowledge bases
    • Search engine
  • We need Knowledge Management Policy = Governance for this set of processes, roles and technologies.
  • Attributes of good supply chains:
    • They are user-focused (focused on the profit-maker)
    • Everyone in the organization is committed to this system
    • The supply chain must be reliable — when someone seeks knowledge, it should be there
    • The supply of knowledge should be high quality
    • Efficient
    • Pull-driven
    • Lean
  • Lean = a systematic method for the elimination of waste within a manufacturing system, and a focus on value add
    • Waste #1 = overproduction:
      • Info overload
      • Technology complexity overload
      • Producing more than and /or ahead of demand = a massive oversupply of knowledge
      • Davenport & Prusak, Working Knowledge: “Volume is the friend of data and the enemy of knowledge.”
    • Waste #2 = waiting = clock speed = the speed of learning
      • Waste = knowledge that is waiting to be used
      • Huawei has the Rule of 3 Ones:
        • you should be able to find something in one minute
        • you should get an answer to a question in one day
        • you should circulate new project knowledge within one month of the close of the project
      • Read Atul Gawande’s Checklist Manifesto
        • they use checklists to speed learning
    • Waste #3 = unnecessary transport = unnecessary steps or handoffs
      • This usually is the result of too much bureaucracy/hierarchy
      • You can eliminate this by allowing people to connect directly/horizontally with each other
    • Waste #4 = inappropriate processing = doing more work than is necessary
      • When knowledge is in a jumble, everyone who needs that knowledge will need to sift it and sort it every single time. The way to eliminate this form of waste is to sift and sort the content once on behalf of everyone.
    • Waste #5 = unnecessary motion = going to multiple places to get your knowledge
      • Some organizations have too many collaboration tools (e.g., yammer, jive, slack, etc.) — this is waste
      • In some organizations, every division has its own lessons management system
      • Schlumberger has provided only one tool for each knowledge function. They built a successful expertise locator. Later, when they deployed SharePoint, they turned off MySite because they believed it would function as a duplicate expertise locator.
    • Waste #6 = excess inventory
      • A lessons management system is helpful provided it has just enough lessons to cover the work being done. One lesson on an issue is good. Ten lessons may be better. However, 100 or 1000 lessons constitute an oversupply. A knowledge worker will never be able to read and apply all of them.
      • Don’t give users too much — give them just enough. Overproduction constitutes waste.
    • Waste #7 = defects = the cost of wrong knowledge
      • this arises when you fail to clear out of your knowledge systems old or outdated materials
  • Best approach to lessons learned
    • Complete the project or activity
    • Identify, document, store the new lessons learned, best practice, cases
    • Review, validate, take action >> update the practices and training
    • Access the database and apply lessons learned
  • The Knowledge Supply Chain
    • Raw materials = experience
    • Supplier = team members
    • Manufacturing = creation of lessons
    • Distribution = lessons management
    • Assembly plant = improved process
    • Consumer = knowledge re-use and application
  • How to incentivize knowledge seeking and re-use?
    • Make it easy
    • Promote success stories
  •  Questions:
    • If you view your own KM system as a supply chain, where is the waste?
    • How will you eliminate the waste?
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Transferring Critical Knowledge When Speed Matters #KMWorld

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Description: This session looks at the rate of knowledge (i.e., expertise) transfer as a critical KM issue and shares research which looks at expertise transfer through the lens of personas. The creation and perspective of knowledge worker personas provides a breakthrough in the identification, construction, and delivery framework for expertise transfer. Well-established methods of knowledge sharing and transfer, such as communities of practice, provide the capability for expertise transfer, but they do not always address the concept of speed in their structure. Similar approaches, such as the transfer of best practices, or self-service models, also do not take into consideration the need for speed based upon a specific situation, a specific knowledge need, nor a specific role. The persona lens on expertise transfer ensures that all three perspectives are taken into account when designing a knowledge management framework and methodology. Speakers describe the thinking behind the persona perspective, and give attendees an opportunity to test their expertise transfer needs through hands-on experience.

Speakers:

Darcy Lemons, Senior Advisor, Advisory Services, APQC
Jim Lee, Senior Advisor & KM Practice Area Lead, APQC

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2015 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • Slide Deck
  • Sustained focus on knowledge transfer
    • Their 2015 KM Priorities Survey results show that
      • knowledge capture/transfer is among the top 3 KM approaches to implement in 2015, with 37% of survey participants saying their organizations plan to create new processes to capture and transfer critical knowledge over the coming year.
      • approximately 48% already have knowledge capture/transfer processes
  • Known approaches to knowledge transfer.
    • knowledge capture/transfer approaches can range from systematic (formal, structured) to organic (informal, unstructured)
      • Formal KM approaches
        • knowledge elicitation interviews
        • knowledge mapping
        • retiree knowledge ransfer
        • knowledge continuity processes
        • after-action reviews
      • Learning & Development approaches:
        • lunch-and-learn
        • webinars
      • Content repositories:
        • content portals
        • wikis
        • blogs
        • Internal videos
        • lessons learned databases
      • Network-based approaches:
        • communities of practice
      • Person-to-Person approaches
        • forums
        • meetings
        • conversations at the watercolor
    • 3 key questions
      • Explicitness: How easily can the knowledge be captured?
      • Audience: Is the knowledge recipient known?
      • Stability: How fast is the knowledge evolving?
  • Techniques to support knowledge transfer.
    • APQC’s 8th KM Advanced Working Group
      • this group addresses new issues for which there are no established best practices
      • the group is made up of organizations and top KM experts
      • member organizations
        • ConocoPhillips
        • Phillips66
        • EY
        • Praxair
        • Intel
        • NASA
      • These organizations want to know about speed — how to transfer knowledge quickly
      • Setting the Scope
        • Who: when needs the knowledge? what role do they perform? What do they do?
        • What: what knowledge do they need? How complex is it?
        • How:
        • When: when do they need it?
    • They recommend a knowledge mapping approach
      • start with a known/agreed process
      • follow with a knowledge map (a simple spreadsheet)
      • They started with a process-centric knowledge map: 1st column is process steps, 2nd column is activity, 3rd column = what knowledge is needed, 4th column = who has the knowledge, 5th column = is it tacit or explicit…
        • chart the knowledge that is needed for each step of the process
          • what knowledge is needed?
          • who has it?
          • when is it needed?
      • Then they developed a role-centric knowledge map — defining the following items by Who  (person, group, team) and What (type of knowledge). Here are the column headings:
        • type of knowledge needed
        • rate of speed
        • created by whom
        • identified by whom
        • collected by whom
        • reviewed by whom
        • shared with whom
        • accessed how
        • used by whom
  • Determining HOW to transfer knowledge.
    • If you need it immediately
      • Methods: Yammer, Communities of Practice, videos, discussion groups
    • If you need it in the mid-term
      • Methods: Wiki, SharePoint library, webinars, lunch-in-learns, search and find
    • If you need it in the long-term
      • Methods: formal training, conferences, knowledge elicitation interviews
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Insights and Innovation: The Light Bulb Moment #KMWorld

 

KMWlogo_Stacked_Session Description: As a researcher, writer and practitioner, our speaker discusses five ideas for increasing discoveries, describes the insight stance-a mental set we adopt for encountering new ideas and events, and looks at how it might help organizations improve their level of innovation.

Speaker: Dr Gary Klein, Senior Scientist, MacroCognition LLC

[These are my notes from the KMWorld 2015 Conference. I’m publishing them as soon as possible after the end of a session, so they may contain the occasional typographical or grammatical error. Please excuse those. To the extent I’ve made any editorial comments, I’ve shown those in brackets.]

NOTES:

  • How to improve performance?
    • The initial impulse is to simply reduce errors. However, you also need to increase insights.
      • reducing errors = playing not to loose
      • increasing insights = playing to win
  • Where do insights come from?
    • Insights = unexpected discoveries about how things work. Typically, they come without warning.
    • His methodology: he created a set of articles, interviews and other
    • He found three common themes:
      • Creative Desperation: insights we get when we are stuck and trying hard to find a solution
        • finding the solution is tough because we often are hampered by our unconscious assumptions that narrow our thinking improperly
      • Connections: these insights arise when we put different things together.
        • for example, Charles Darwin put his empirical information together with Malthus’ theory on population growth and then realized that competition for resources drove the patterns he was observing in nature.
        • this is more than “just connecting the dots.” It is not as simple as it sounds.
        • this about realizing pieces fit together
      • Contradictions: these insights arise from observing something that does not make sense.
        • these pieces do not fit together
        • you notice them because they do not fit the pattern you expected
  • How can we get more insights? The ShadowBox Approach.
    • this is a scenario-based approach that helps the trainee see through the eyes of the expert
    • in the middle of the scenario, pause: say that this is a decision point, so please identify the possible responses and rationale
      • rank-order your possible responses and see how they stack up against experts
      • compare your rationale against those of the experts and learn what the experts saw that you did not see
  • Why do some get insights and others don’t?
    • the person who had the insight had an active, curious mind — they loved to puzzle about things, play with things
    • the person who did not have the insight had their head down, trying to get the work done
  • How to increase the chance of getting insight? Develop an insight mindset.
    • Make insights a habit
      • celebrate your insights
      • create the expectation that you are capable of insight
      • observe what works or doesn’t works and then try to figure out why in hindsight
    • Use your curiosity
      • explore anything that strikes you as interesting
      • be curious about problems
      • be curious about coincidences
      • be curious about anomalies and contradictions
    • Encourage others
      • ask others if anything has surprised them since the last time you spoke with them about a common project
    • Take advantage of confusion and conflicts
      • when things don’t go as planned, ask what the other person thought they were supposed to do
  • Over-emphasis on reducing mistakes can interfere with insights
    • Distraction : the effort at reducing mistakes (document and tracking) gets in the way of seeing new patterns.
    • Passivity: critical thinking may lead people to view their jobs as not making mistakes
    • Why do organizations continue to overemphasize the reducing error?
  • Why do organizations fear insights?
    • Insights are disorganizing — they disturb things, they create bumps
    • Distrust of creativity
      • Mueller says: “The settlers get the land, the pioneers get the arrows.”
    • Predictability allows effective management
    • Perfection enables effective management
      • managers prefer error reduction to making discoveries
    • Effort — insights often cause extra work
    • Loss aversion
      • we feel twice as much pain about we are giving up than pleasure about what we are gaining
    • Goal fixation
  • How can we help organizations ward off insights and innovations?
    • Make sure your organization has a clear chain of command in order to reduce confusion and ambiguity.
      • this will block out unusual or disturbing ideas
    • Gather all the relevant data before making decisions so as to reduce uncertainty.
    • Before starting, conduct a thorough review to reduce the chance of error.
      • if you insist on perfect methodology, you will not have innovation
    • Establish a firm project goal and schedule.
      • this is a great way to reduce insights and innovation that are yet to be discovered
    • Ensure you a harmonious team
      • Rely on consensus decision making (i.e., each person on the team has a veto).
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